Liqueurs derived from Citrus fruits, generally obtained from maceration of lemon, mandarin and bergamot peel in ethanol, water and sugar, are a category of spirit drinks in which the addition of nature-identical flavouring substances and preparations is not authorized. The traditional production methods and the protection of geographical indications of spirit drinks are governed by the Regulation (EC) No 110/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Authenticity assessment of home-made and commercial Citrus liqueurs was performed using Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Additional analyses were performed on all the samples, by means of enantioselective Gas Chromatography (Es-GC), measuring the enantiomeric distribution of the chiral volatile components, extracted by the same HS-SPME technique. Moreover, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements were also conducted employing the HS-SPME technique, in order to obtain information on the qualitative aspects of the samples. The data obtained from the GC-MS technique were also able to reveal the lack of the monoterpene fraction in some commercial samples. The GC-C-IRMS measurements of the liqueurs were compared with the authenticity ranges of the Citrus volatile components carbon isotopic ratio, obtained from genuine cold-pressed lemon, mandarin and bergamot essential olis. In particular, it was seen that the carbon isotope ratio of the volatile compounds of the home-made drinks fell into the correspondent authenticity range of the cold-pressed essential oil. GC-C-IRMS, ES-GC and GC-MS techniques coupled with HS-SPME extraction method have shown to be a complete and rapid tool for the quality control investigation of Citrus liqueurs, and were in good agreement in the revealing of non-natural Citrus aromas in some commercial liqueurs, as well as the assessment of the genuineness of the home-made ones.

Citrus liqueurs quality control employing Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS), enantioselective-Gas Chromatography (Es-GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

SCHIPILLITI, LUISA;TRANCHIDA, Peter Quinto;BONACCORSI, Ivana Lidia;DUGO, Paola;DUGO, Giovanni;MONDELLO, Luigi
2011-01-01

Abstract

Liqueurs derived from Citrus fruits, generally obtained from maceration of lemon, mandarin and bergamot peel in ethanol, water and sugar, are a category of spirit drinks in which the addition of nature-identical flavouring substances and preparations is not authorized. The traditional production methods and the protection of geographical indications of spirit drinks are governed by the Regulation (EC) No 110/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Authenticity assessment of home-made and commercial Citrus liqueurs was performed using Headspace-Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Additional analyses were performed on all the samples, by means of enantioselective Gas Chromatography (Es-GC), measuring the enantiomeric distribution of the chiral volatile components, extracted by the same HS-SPME technique. Moreover, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) measurements were also conducted employing the HS-SPME technique, in order to obtain information on the qualitative aspects of the samples. The data obtained from the GC-MS technique were also able to reveal the lack of the monoterpene fraction in some commercial samples. The GC-C-IRMS measurements of the liqueurs were compared with the authenticity ranges of the Citrus volatile components carbon isotopic ratio, obtained from genuine cold-pressed lemon, mandarin and bergamot essential olis. In particular, it was seen that the carbon isotope ratio of the volatile compounds of the home-made drinks fell into the correspondent authenticity range of the cold-pressed essential oil. GC-C-IRMS, ES-GC and GC-MS techniques coupled with HS-SPME extraction method have shown to be a complete and rapid tool for the quality control investigation of Citrus liqueurs, and were in good agreement in the revealing of non-natural Citrus aromas in some commercial liqueurs, as well as the assessment of the genuineness of the home-made ones.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/2006825
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