Wolfram syndrome 1 is a rare, autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative, progressive disorder. Insulin-dependent, non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus and bilateral progressive optic atrophy are both sensitive and specific criteria for clinical diagnosis. The leading cause of death is central respiratory failure resulting from brainstem atrophy. We describe the clinical features of fourteen patients from seven different families followed in our Diabetes Center. The mean age at Wolfram syndrome 1 diagnosis was 12.4 years. Diabetes mellitus was the first clinical manifestation, in all patients. Sensorineural hearing impairment and central diabetes insipidus were present in 85.7% of patients. Other endocrine findings included hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (7.1%), hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (7.1%), and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (21.4%). Neuropsychiatric disorders were detected in 35.7% of patients, and urogenital tract abnormalities were present in 21.4%. Finally, heart diseases were found in 14.2% of patients. Eight patients (57.1%) died at the mean age of 27.3 years. The most common cause of death was respiratory failure which occurred in six patients. The remaining two died due to end-stage renal failure and myocardial infarction. Our data are superimposable with those reported in the literature in terms of mean age of onset, the clinical course of the disease, and causes of death. The frequency of deafness and diabetes insipidus was higher in our patients. The incidence of urogenital diseases was lower although it led to the death of one patient. Long-term follow-up studies including large patient cohorts are necessary to establish potential genotype-phenotype correlation in order to personalize the most suitable clinical approach for each patient.

Clinical Peculiarities in a Cohort of Patients with Wolfram Syndrome 1

Salzano G.
Primo
Conceptualization
;
Rigoli L.
Investigation
;
Valenzise M.
Data Curation
;
Chimenz R.
Data Curation
;
Passanisi S.
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Lombardo F.
Ultimo
Writing – Review & Editing
2022

Abstract

Wolfram syndrome 1 is a rare, autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative, progressive disorder. Insulin-dependent, non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus and bilateral progressive optic atrophy are both sensitive and specific criteria for clinical diagnosis. The leading cause of death is central respiratory failure resulting from brainstem atrophy. We describe the clinical features of fourteen patients from seven different families followed in our Diabetes Center. The mean age at Wolfram syndrome 1 diagnosis was 12.4 years. Diabetes mellitus was the first clinical manifestation, in all patients. Sensorineural hearing impairment and central diabetes insipidus were present in 85.7% of patients. Other endocrine findings included hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (7.1%), hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (7.1%), and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (21.4%). Neuropsychiatric disorders were detected in 35.7% of patients, and urogenital tract abnormalities were present in 21.4%. Finally, heart diseases were found in 14.2% of patients. Eight patients (57.1%) died at the mean age of 27.3 years. The most common cause of death was respiratory failure which occurred in six patients. The remaining two died due to end-stage renal failure and myocardial infarction. Our data are superimposable with those reported in the literature in terms of mean age of onset, the clinical course of the disease, and causes of death. The frequency of deafness and diabetes insipidus was higher in our patients. The incidence of urogenital diseases was lower although it led to the death of one patient. Long-term follow-up studies including large patient cohorts are necessary to establish potential genotype-phenotype correlation in order to personalize the most suitable clinical approach for each patient.
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Descrizione: Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Jan 4;19(1):520. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19010520.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3220796
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