Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widespread in nature and possess antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Due to their multifunctional properties, these peptides are a focus of growing body of interest and have been characterized in several fish species. Due to their similarities in amino-acid composition and amphipathic design, it has been suggested that neuropeptides may be directly involved in the innate immune response against pathogen intruders. In this review, we report the molecular characterization of the fish-specific AMP piscidin1, the production of an antibody raised against this peptide and the immunohistochemical identification of this peptide and enkephalins in the neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in the gill of several teleost fish species living in different habitats. In spite of the abundant literature on Piscidin1, the biological role of this peptide in fish visceral organs remains poorly explored, as well as the role of the neuropeptides in neuroimmune interaction in fish. The NECs, by their role as sensors of hypoxia changes in the external environments, in combination with their endocrine nature and secretion of immunomodulatory substances would influence various types of immune cells that contain piscidin, such as mast cells and eosinophils, both showing interaction with the nervous system. The discovery of piscidins in the gill and skin, their diversity and their role in the regulation of immune response will lead to better selection of these immunomodulatory molecules as drug targets to retain antimicrobial barrier function and for aquaculture therapy in the future.

Expression of the Antimicrobial Peptide Piscidin 1 and Neuropeptides in Fish Gill and Skin: A Potential Participation in Neuro-Immune Interaction

Capillo G.
Secondo
;
Lauriano E. R.;Alesci A.;Lo Cascio P.;Guerrera M. C.;Germana A.
Penultimo
;
Aragona M.
Ultimo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found widespread in nature and possess antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Due to their multifunctional properties, these peptides are a focus of growing body of interest and have been characterized in several fish species. Due to their similarities in amino-acid composition and amphipathic design, it has been suggested that neuropeptides may be directly involved in the innate immune response against pathogen intruders. In this review, we report the molecular characterization of the fish-specific AMP piscidin1, the production of an antibody raised against this peptide and the immunohistochemical identification of this peptide and enkephalins in the neuroepithelial cells (NECs) in the gill of several teleost fish species living in different habitats. In spite of the abundant literature on Piscidin1, the biological role of this peptide in fish visceral organs remains poorly explored, as well as the role of the neuropeptides in neuroimmune interaction in fish. The NECs, by their role as sensors of hypoxia changes in the external environments, in combination with their endocrine nature and secretion of immunomodulatory substances would influence various types of immune cells that contain piscidin, such as mast cells and eosinophils, both showing interaction with the nervous system. The discovery of piscidins in the gill and skin, their diversity and their role in the regulation of immune response will lead to better selection of these immunomodulatory molecules as drug targets to retain antimicrobial barrier function and for aquaculture therapy in the future.
2022
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Expression of the Antimicrobial Peptide (1)_compressed.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Formato elettronico
Tipologia: Versione Editoriale (PDF)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 2.54 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
2.54 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
Pubblicazioni consigliate

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3227336
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 7
  • Scopus 19
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 19
social impact