BackgroundParaneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) are nonmetastatic complications of malignancy, defined by the presence of onconeural antibodies (ONAs). ONAs may be found in 60% of patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, and they are directed against intraneuronal antigens or channels, receptors or associated proteins located at the synaptic or extra-synaptic neuronal cell membrane. Given its rare incidence, there are few epidemiological case series on CNS-PNS. We aim to discuss the variability of CNS-PNSs etiology, clinical features, management and outcome, highlighting the importance of early recognition and appropriate treatment, leading to significant reduction of mortality and morbidity.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed our 7-years single-center experience, and specifically discussed the underlying etiology, parenchymal CNS involvement, and the acute treatment response. Only cases fulfilling PNS Euronetwork criteria for definitive PNS were included.ResultsA total of 26 probable PNSs cases involving CNS were identified. We reported medical records of eleven (42.3%) illustrative cases, meeting the criteria of definite PNS and presenting variable clinical spectrum and different radiological appearances. Our series has a relative paucity of the most common syndromes and larger portion of clinical diagnosis with ONAs. Well-characterized ONAs had been detected in CSF of six patients.ConclusionsOur case series supports the utmost importance of early recognition of CNS-PNSs. Screening for occult malignancies should not be limited to patients with classical CNS syndrome. Empiric immunomodulatory therapy may be considered before the diagnostic evaluation is completed, in order to prevent unfavorable outcome. Late presentations should not discourage initiation of treatment.

Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes of the central nervous system: a single institution 7-year case series

Giammello, Fabrizio;Galletta, Karol;Grillo, Francesco;Brizzi, Teresa;Cavallaro, Marco;Mormina, Enricomaria;Allegra, Cosimo;Stancanelli, Claudia;Rodolico, Carmelo
Investigation
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Musumeci, Olimpia;Toscano, Antonio;Granata, Francesca
2023-01-01

Abstract

BackgroundParaneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNSs) are nonmetastatic complications of malignancy, defined by the presence of onconeural antibodies (ONAs). ONAs may be found in 60% of patients with central nervous system (CNS) involvement, and they are directed against intraneuronal antigens or channels, receptors or associated proteins located at the synaptic or extra-synaptic neuronal cell membrane. Given its rare incidence, there are few epidemiological case series on CNS-PNS. We aim to discuss the variability of CNS-PNSs etiology, clinical features, management and outcome, highlighting the importance of early recognition and appropriate treatment, leading to significant reduction of mortality and morbidity.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed our 7-years single-center experience, and specifically discussed the underlying etiology, parenchymal CNS involvement, and the acute treatment response. Only cases fulfilling PNS Euronetwork criteria for definitive PNS were included.ResultsA total of 26 probable PNSs cases involving CNS were identified. We reported medical records of eleven (42.3%) illustrative cases, meeting the criteria of definite PNS and presenting variable clinical spectrum and different radiological appearances. Our series has a relative paucity of the most common syndromes and larger portion of clinical diagnosis with ONAs. Well-characterized ONAs had been detected in CSF of six patients.ConclusionsOur case series supports the utmost importance of early recognition of CNS-PNSs. Screening for occult malignancies should not be limited to patients with classical CNS syndrome. Empiric immunomodulatory therapy may be considered before the diagnostic evaluation is completed, in order to prevent unfavorable outcome. Late presentations should not discourage initiation of treatment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3255836
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