The balance between the different lipid molecules present in biological fluids accurately reflects the health state of the organism and can be used by medical personnel to finely tune therapy to a single patient, a process known as precision medicine. In this work, we developed a miniaturized workflow for the analysis of different lipid classes at the intact level, as well as their fatty acid constituents, starting from human serum. Fatty acids were identified by using flow-modulated comprehensive gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (FM-GC x GC-MS), and their relative amount as well as the ratio of specific FA classes was determined by using FM-GC x GC with a flame ionization detector. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used for the simultaneous quantification of vitamin D metabolites and assessment of different intact lipid classes. An MRM method was developed for the quantification of five vitamin D metabolites (vitamin D2, vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), and validated in terms of LoD, LoQ, accuracy, and precision, also using a certified reference material. At the same time, a combination of SCAN, precursor ion scan, and neutral loss scan, in both positive and negative modes, was used for the identification of 81 intact lipid species, such as phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, and triacylglycerols, in less than 25 min. In order to easily monitor the lipid composition and speed up the identification process, a two-dimensional map of the lipidome was generated, by plotting the molecular weight of the identified molecules versus their retention time. Moreover, a relative quantification was performed within each lipid class identified. The combination of untargeted and targeted data could provide useful information about the pathophysiological condition of the organism and evaluate, in a tailored manner, an efficient action.
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