Olive oil is an important product in the Mediterranean diet, due to its health benefits and sensorial characteristics. Picholine marocaine is the most cultivated variety in Morocco. The present research aims to evaluate the phenolic compounds, vitamin E and fatty acids of commercial Picholine marocaine virgin olive oils (VOOs) from five different North Moroccan provinces (Chefchaouen, Taounate, Errachidia, Beni Mellal and Taza), using HPLC-photodiode array (PDA)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, normal phase (NP)-HPLC/ fluorescence detector (FLD) and GC-flame ionization detector (FID)/MS, respectively. The obtained results showed an average content of 130.0 mg kg-1 of secoiridoids (oleuropein aglycone, 10-hydroxy-oleuropein aglycone and ligstroside aglycone, oleocanthal and oleacein), 108.1 mg kg-1 of phenolic alcohols (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol), 34.7 mg kg-1 of phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid and elenolic acid), and 8.24 mg kg-1 of flavonoids (luteolin, luteolin glucoside, apigenin). With regard to vitamin E, α-tocopherol was the most abundant vitamin E (57.9 mg kg-1), followed by α-tocotrienol (2.5 mg kg-1), γ-tocopherol (4.5 mg kg-1) and β-tocopherol (1.9 mg kg-1), while δ-tocopherol was not detected. Moreover, 14 fatty acids were found and, among them, oleic acid (76.1%), linoleic acid (8.1%) palmitic acid (8.7%) and stearic acid (2.5%) were the major fatty acids detected. Finally, heat map and principal component analysis allowed us to classify the studied provinces in terms of VOO chemical composition: Chefchaouen (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol), Taounate (oleuropein aglycone), Errachidia (ferulic acid, w-3 and w-6), Beni Mellal (oleocanthal) and Taza (luteolin and oleic acid).

Characterization of Phenolic Compounds, Vitamin E and Fatty Acids from Monovarietal Virgin Olive Oils of "Picholine marocaine" Cultivar

Bouymajane A.;Oulad El Majdoub Y.;Cacciola F.
;
Russo M.
;
Salafia F.;Trozzi A.;Dugo P.;Mondello L.
2020

Abstract

Olive oil is an important product in the Mediterranean diet, due to its health benefits and sensorial characteristics. Picholine marocaine is the most cultivated variety in Morocco. The present research aims to evaluate the phenolic compounds, vitamin E and fatty acids of commercial Picholine marocaine virgin olive oils (VOOs) from five different North Moroccan provinces (Chefchaouen, Taounate, Errachidia, Beni Mellal and Taza), using HPLC-photodiode array (PDA)/electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS, normal phase (NP)-HPLC/ fluorescence detector (FLD) and GC-flame ionization detector (FID)/MS, respectively. The obtained results showed an average content of 130.0 mg kg-1 of secoiridoids (oleuropein aglycone, 10-hydroxy-oleuropein aglycone and ligstroside aglycone, oleocanthal and oleacein), 108.1 mg kg-1 of phenolic alcohols (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol), 34.7 mg kg-1 of phenolic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid and elenolic acid), and 8.24 mg kg-1 of flavonoids (luteolin, luteolin glucoside, apigenin). With regard to vitamin E, α-tocopherol was the most abundant vitamin E (57.9 mg kg-1), followed by α-tocotrienol (2.5 mg kg-1), γ-tocopherol (4.5 mg kg-1) and β-tocopherol (1.9 mg kg-1), while δ-tocopherol was not detected. Moreover, 14 fatty acids were found and, among them, oleic acid (76.1%), linoleic acid (8.1%) palmitic acid (8.7%) and stearic acid (2.5%) were the major fatty acids detected. Finally, heat map and principal component analysis allowed us to classify the studied provinces in terms of VOO chemical composition: Chefchaouen (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol), Taounate (oleuropein aglycone), Errachidia (ferulic acid, w-3 and w-6), Beni Mellal (oleocanthal) and Taza (luteolin and oleic acid).
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11570/3184114
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